Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)
IMRT, an advanced form of 3D therapy, is the most common type of EBRT for prostate cancer. It uses a computer-driven machine that moves around the patient as it delivers radiation. Along with shaping the beams and aiming them at the prostate from several angles, the intensity (strength) of the beams can be adjusted to limit the doses reaching nearby normal tissues. This lets doctors deliver an even higher dose to the cancer.
Some newer radiation machines have imaging scanners built into them. This advance, known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), lets the doctor take pictures of the prostate and make minor adjustments in aiming just before giving the radiation. This may help deliver the radiation even more precisely, which might result in fewer side effects, although more research is needed to prove this.
Another approach is to place tiny implants into the prostate that send out radio waves to tell the radiation therapy machines where to aim. This lets the machine adjust for movement (like during breathing) and may allow less radiation to go to normal tissues. In theory, this could lower side effects. So far, though, no study has shown side effects to be lower with this approach than with other forms of IMRT. The machines that use this are known as Calypso®.
A variation of IMRT is called volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). It uses a machine that delivers radiation quickly as it rotates once around the body. This allows each treatment to be given over just a few minutes. Although this can be more convenient for the patient, it hasn’t yet been shown to be more effective than regular IMRT.